WHO publikationer

Här finner du information från WHO som sammanställer kunskapsöversikter i aktuella ämnen.

Young and physically active: a blueprint for making physical activity appealing to youth

by Paul Kelly, Anne Matthews and Charlie Foster

Scientific evidence shows that physical inactivity is a leading risk factor for ill health, going well beyond issues related to weight control and influencing both physical and mental well-being. Over the past few years, the promotion of physical activity has increasingly been recognized in Europe as a priority for public health, and many countries have responded by developing policies and interventions.

To support Member States’ efforts, the WHO Regional Office for Europe has developed a blueprint for making physical activity appealing to young people. It is intended to be a resource for physical-activity promoters, with a focus on supportive urban environments and settings where children and young people live, study and play.

This report outlines the blueprint, its development and suggested next steps. This publication arises from the Networking for Physical Activity project, which has been co-funded by the European Union in the framework of the Health Programme 2008–2013.

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  Action Plan for implementation of the European Strategy for the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases 2012−2016
Available in pdf >> 
2012, iii + 24 pages, ISBN 978 92 890 0268 4
Free of charge

No less than 86% of deaths and 77% of the disease burden in the WHO European Region are caused by noncommunicable diseases. Investing in prevention and better control of this broad group of disorders will reduce premature death and preventable morbidity and disability, improve the quality of life and well-being of people and societies, and help reduce the growing health inequalities they cause.

With attention to noncommunicable diseases reaching unprecedented levels worldwide, this action plan was adopted in September 2011. It identifies priority action areas and interventions for countries to focus on over the next five years (2012–2016), as they implement the European Strategy for the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases.


Is social capital good for health? A European perspective
Available in pdf >>

By Lorenzo Rocco and Marc Suhrcke
2012, iv + 16 pages, ISBN 978 92 890 0273 8
This publication is only available online.

The aim of the research reported here was to examine the causal impact of social capital on health in 14 European countries. Using data from the European Social Survey, supplemented by regional-level data, the authors studied whether individual and/or community-level social capital positively affects health. They controlled for other factors expected to affect health, and addressed – via an instrumental variable approach – the challenge of assessing causality in the relationship between social capital and health. The large variance of the error term due to measurement errors calls for strong instruments to obtain reliable estimates in a finite sample. The dataset was rich enough in information to allow the finding of a seemingly strong causal relationship between social capital and individual health. Community social capital (defined at the regional level) appears not to affect health once individual-level social capital is controlled for. Taken at face value, the findings suggest that policy interventions should be aimed at improving primarily individual social capital. This would achieve a double effect: directly improving individuals’ health and contributing to community social capital, which reinforces the beneficial role of individual social capital. 

  Addressing the social determinants of health: the urban dimension and the role of local government
This report summarizes the evidence on the social determinants of health in the urban context, drawing on the findings of the global Commission on Social Determinants of Health and the European review of social determinants of health and the health divide.
It also highlights how, through its leadership, local government can play a significant role in addressing these causes of health inequalities, by working across sectors and with civil society partners.
This report provides a helpful overview of practices from across Europe, and identifies priority action areas and key implementation issues, to support and accelerate the growing interest of local governments in being sensitive and proactive in tackling inequities.
For more information about the book, how to order and a link to the electronic version check here. 

Social determinants of health and well-being among young people. Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study: international report from the 2009/2010 survey

By Candace Currie, Cara Zanotti, Antony Morgan, Dorothy Currie, Margaretha de Looze, Chris Roberts, Oddrun Samdal, Otto R.F. Smith and Vivian Barnekow

The latest addition to a series of Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) studies on young people’s health, this report presents findings from the 2009/2010 survey on the demographic and social influences on the health of young people (aged 11, 13 and 15 years) in 43 countries and regions in the WHO European Region and North America. Responding to the survey, the young people described their social context (relations with family, peers and school), physical health and satisfaction with life, health behaviours (patterns of eating, tooth brushing and physical activity) and risk behaviours (use of tobacco, alcohol and cannabis, sexual behaviour, fighting and bullying). Statistical analyses were carried out to identify meaningful differences in the prevalence of health and social indicators by gender, age group and levels of family affluence.

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 Alcohol in the European Union

Alcohol in the European Union. 
Consumption, harm and policy approaches

(Edited by: Peter Anderson, Lars Møller and Gauden Galea)
This new report uses information gathered in 2011 to update key indicators on alcohol consumption, health outcomes and action to reduce harm across the European Union (EU). It gives an overview of the latest research on effective alcohol policies, and includes data from the EU, Norway and Switzerland on alcohol consumption, harm and policy approaches. The data were collected from a 2011 survey, carried out as part of a project of the European Commission and the WHO Regional Office for Europe. The report provides policy-makers and other stakeholders with useful information to guide future actions in reducing the harm done to health and society by excessive drinking.

Alcohol is one of the world’s top three priority areas in public health. Even though only half the global population drinks alcohol, it is the world’s third leading cause of ill health and premature death, after low birth weight and unsafe sex. In Europe, alcohol is the third leading risk factor for disease and death after tobacco and high blood pressure.
For more information about the book, how to order and a link to the electronic version check: http://www.euro.who.int/en/what-we-publish/sections/latest-books/alcohol-in-the-european-union.-consumption,-harm-and-policy-approaches 

Six policy issues briefings (only available online)
Result of a joint action by the WHO Regional Office for Europe and the European Commission on inequalities in health-system performance and their social determinants in Europe with the two objectives of:

  • mapping health inequalities in the European Union and selected neighbouring countries
  • developing resources to assist policy-makers in taking action

For more information about the briefs click on the links to the electronic version.

How health systems can address inequities in priority public health conditions: the example of tuberculosis.
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How health systems can address health inequities linked to migration and ethnicity
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Poverty, social exclusion and health systems in the WHO European Region
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How health systems can accelerate progress towards Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 on child and maternal health by promoting gender equity
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How health systems can address health inequities through improved use of Structural Funds
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Rural poverty and health systems in the WHO European Region
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The impact of health and health behaviours on educational outcomes in high-income countries: a review of the evidence
Education is known to have an effect on health. But to what extent do good health and healthy behaviours contribute to educational attainment? This publication reviews current knowledge, especially in high-income countries, and finds evidence of a causal link.
It will be of interest to academics, practitioners and policy-makers in the areas of both education and child health.

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WHO/HBSC Forum 2009. Socio-environmentally determined health inequities among children and adolescents. Summary of outcomes, background papers and country case studies.
Ample evidence shows that young people living in poorer circumstances are more likely to be at risk of unintentional injuries and physical inactivity than those from more affluent families.

The WHO/Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) Forum 2009, the third in a series designed to promote adolescent health, was held on 19–20 October 2009 in Italy. It concentrated on action on socio-environmentally determined health inequities among children and adolescents. This publication presents the summary of outcomes of the Forum.

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Burden of disease from environmental noise. 
Quantification of healthy life years lost in Europe

The health impacts of environmental noise are a growing concern. At least one million healthy life years are lost every year from traffic-related noise in the western part of Europe.

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Tackling antibiotic resistance from a food safety perspective in Europe
This publication explores the options for prevention and containment of antibiotic resistance in the food-chain through national coordination and international cooperation, including the regulation and reduction of antibiotic use in food animals, training and capacity building, surveillance of resistance trends and antibiotic usage, promotion of knowledge and research, and advocacy and communication to raise awareness of the issues.
It is primarily intended for policy-makers and authorities working in the public health, agriculture, food production and veterinary sectors, and offers them ways to take a holistic, intersectoral, multifaceted approach to this growing problem.

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Small-scale water supplies in the pan-European region. Background. Challenges. Improvements
Small-scale water supplies are the backbone of water supply in rural areas in the entire pan-European region. This publication is intended to help decision-makers, such as policy-makers or regulators in the drinking-water sector, to appreciate better and address the particularities and characteristics of small-scale water supplies. It provides a range of background information, case studies and lessons learned, and ideas for addressing the issues in national programmes. Information for further reading as well as international networking activities is also provided.
This publication was developed by the German Federal Environment Agency, a WHO Collaborating Centre for Research on Drinking Water Hygiene, in cooperation with the WHO Regional Office for Europe and the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. 
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Palliative care for older people: 
better practices 
(Edited by Sue Hall, Hristina Petkova, Agis D. Tsouros, Massimo Costantini and Irene J. Higginson)   
This publication provides examples of better palliative care practices, from or relevant to the WHO European Region, that range from a whole health system perspective down to individual examples of better education or support in the community and elsewhere.
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Technical guidance on water-related disease surveillance
(Edited by E. Funari, T. Kistemann, S. Herbst and A. Rechenburg)

The guidance reviews the main threats to health related to water services, recalls basic concepts of epidemiology and disease surveillance and advises on data management and analysis. It will therefore also support countries’ efforts towards national and international health security, in line with the International Health Regulations (2005). The Parties to the Protocol approved this guidance in November 2010.
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Policy guidance on water-related disease surveillance 
This booklet contains guidance on the policy related to water-related disease surveillance developed by the Task Force on Water-related Disease Surveillance established under the Protocol on Water and Health to the 1992 Convention on Protection and Use of Transboundary Waters and International Lakes. 
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Diagnosis-related groups in Europe 
(Edited by Reinhard Busse, Alexander Geissler, Wilm Quentin and Miriam Wiley)

Diagnosis-related group systems were introduced throughout Europe for similar reasons: to increase transparency, and to improve efficiency and assure quality in hospitals. After more than a decade of experience with using diagnosis-related groups in Europe, it’s time to consider whether their extensive use has contributed towards achieving these aims.
This book summarizes the experiences with and developments in the diagnosis-related group systems in the 12 countries in the EuroDRG project (Austria, England, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Spain and Sweden). Part One looks at the key issues of efficiency, quality, unintended effects and technological innovation, and Part Two provides clearly structured and detailed information about the most important system characteristics in each of the 12 participating countries.
For more information about the book and how to order it check: http://www.euro.who.int/en/what-we-publish/abstracts/diagnosis-related-groups-in-europe



Governing public hospitals. Reform strategies and the movement towards institutional autonomy
(Edited by Richard B. Saltman, Antonio Durán and Hans F.W. Dubois)

Governance of public hospitals in Europe is changing. Individual hospitals have been given varying degrees of semi-autonomy within the public sector and empowered to make key strategic, financial, and clinical decisions themselves. This study explores the major developments and their implications for national and European health policy.
The study focuses on hospital-level decision-making and draws together both theoretical and practical evidence. It includes an in-depth assessment of eight different country models of semi-autonomy, in the CzechRepublic, England, Estonia, Israel, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal and Spain.
For more information about the book, how to order and a link to the electronic version it check: http://www.euro.who.int/en/what-we-publish/abstracts/governing-public-hospitals.-reform-strategies-and-the-movement-towards-institutional-autonomy 

Guidance on water supply and sanitation in extreme weather events. Edited by L. Sinisi and R. Aertgeerts
Extreme weather events, including floods and droughts, are increasing in frequency and intensity. They affect the operation of water-supply, drainage and sewerage infrastructure, and the functioning of wastewater treatment plants, thereby affecting the protection of public health. Parties to the Protocol on Water and Health reviewed experience and good practice in Europe through a broad consultative process, to devise the present guidance.

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Health systems, health, wealth and societal well-being. Assessing the case for investing in health systems
Edited by Josep Figueras and Martin McKee
This book looks at health systems from a new perspective. By reviewing the complex relationship between health systems, health and wealth, it argues that health systems need not be, as is often believed, simply a drag on resources but rather can be part and parcel of improving health and achieving better economic growth.

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  Environmental health inequalities in Europe Assessment report
The WHO Regional Office for Europe has carried out a baseline assessment of the magnitude of environmental health inequality in the European Region based on a core set of 14 inequality indicators.
For more information about the book, how to order and a link to the electronic version check:  http://www.euro.who.int/en/what-we-publish/abstracts/environmental-health-inequalities-in-europe.-assessment-report

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